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美国CPA考试复习:Acquisition method

来源: 中华会计网校 2014-08-26
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  美国注册会计师考试现为计算机考试,不论报名哪州的考试,均可在美国任何一州的指定计算机考试中心参加考试。美国注册会计师每年分为四个考试窗口,即每一季度为一个考试窗口,每一考试窗口的前两个月为考试月,第三个月为停考阅卷月。网校为了帮助广大学员备战2014年美国cpa考试,精心为大家分享美国cpa考试科目里的重要知识点,希望能够提升您的备考效果,祝您学习愉快

  Acquisition method

  Acquisition values use fair value.

  FV of consideration given/received,which is the more clearly evident. 参F10-3

  Acquisition with cash

  Dr.Investment in subsidiary

  Cr.Cash

  Acquisition with parent common stock(use FV at date transaction closes)

  Dr.Investment in subsidiary

  Cr.C/S(at par)

  Cr. A.P.I.C(FV-par)

  Acquisition Method Features

  100% of the net assets of acquired entity are recorded at fair value.

  Unallocated PPA(Purchase Price Allocation)recorded as goodwill

  The subsidiary‘s entire equity is eliminated.

  Pass Key

  Fair Value=Acquisition Price=Investment in subsidiary

  CAR IN BIG F3-24

  C/S,APIC,R.E of subsidiary are Eliminated.

  Investment in subsidiary is eliminated

  Noncontrolling interest(NCI)is created

  B/S of subsidiary is adjusted to Fair value

  Identifiable intangible assets of the subsidiary are recorded at their fair value.F3-32

  Goodwill/Gain is squeezed.

  Consolidating W/P eliminating journal entry

  Dr.C/S

  Dr.A.P.I.C

  Dr.R.E

  Cr.Investment in subsidiary

  Cr.Noncontrolling interest

  Dr.B/S adjustments to FV

  Dr.Identifiable intangible assets to FV

  Dr.Goodwill

  Subsidiaries fair value(Pass Key F3-25)

  FV of subsidiary = Acquisition cost + Noncontrolling interest

  FV of subsidiary=(NBV + B/S FV adjustment)+ Identifiable IA FV + Goodwill = FV of B/S + identifiable IA FV + Goodwill

  Acquisition cost + noncontrolling interest = FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV + Goodwill

  Subsidiaries fair value(Pass Key F3-25)

  企业被并重评值,总额要由对价定。

  评估价值四大块,账面价值做基础。

  账面价值不公允,差额调入合并表。

  无形资产如可辩,公允价值表中增。

  以上三块相加后,仍与总额有差异。

  差异从来不可辩,记入商誉列表中。

  Subsidiaries fair value (Pass Key F3-25)

  企业价值四大块,最终浓缩为权益。

  我是控股大股东,资产负债要全记。

  其他股东分额小,但是权益还要占。

  防止误导投资者,非控股东权益出。

  老板紧催交合并,大汽车中列表做。

  Subsidiaries fair value (Pass Key F3-25)

  大汽车里做合并,个别报表按列排。

  子方先把权益清,母方再把投资消。(CAR, I)

  合并新增四项目,非控股东分净值。(N)

  账面金额调公允,账外可辩无形增。(B,I)

  商誉总是被挤出,各列相加合并成。(G)

  “在大汽车里”CAR IN BIG做合并的注意事项

  CAR=Assets-Liabilities=Equity=Net book value

  Compute the difference between book value and fair value as of the acquisition date

  R.E.Squeeze back to acquisition date

  Investment in subsidiary

  Capitalize cost

  Original cost:FV of the consideration given

  Bond issue cost

  Expensed cost

  Out-of-pocket cost. legal fee,finder‘s fee

  Indirect costs

  Reverse with A.P.I.C

  Stock registration and issuance costs.

  考点:

  Acquisition related costs must be EXPENSED.

  Legal fee for acquisition must be expensed.

  Noncontrolling Interest(NCI)

  Only exist in consolidated F/S-B/S-Equity(5+1的1)

  If not 100% owned,there must exist NCI in B/S

  Reported at fair valu

  NCI在B/S上的核算(参Appendix I)

  BASE of NCI

  B = FV of sub. X Noncontrolling interest %

  A = NCI share of sub. Net income

  S = Dividend declared to NCI

  E = B + A -S

  ‘Full goodwill method’ NCI Vs. ‘Partial goodwill method’ NCI(F3-31)在Goodwill中列示

  考点:NCI可否为负值?

  答案:可以是负值。如果子公司的净权益已为负值,在合并报表上,需要将亏损分配给NCI.

  NCI对于I/S的影响(参Appendix I)

  增加Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest和Net income attributable to XXX

  Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest = Subsidiary‘s net income X noncontrolling interest %

  实务扩展,复杂资本结构下的合并损益表下半段:

  Net Income

  Less:Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest

  Net income attributable to ABC company

  Undistributed earnings allocated to preferred shareholder

  Net income attributable to C/S of ABC company

  EPS(Basic & Diluted)and Weighted average shares

  NCI对于C/I的影响(参Appendix I)

  增加Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest和Comprehensive income attributable to XXX

  NCI对于Statement of changes in Equity的影响

  增加 了equity attributable to the parent and equity attributable to the noncontrolling interest.

  参Appendix I

  实务扩展。中国在美上市公司的change in equity通常比书上的例子多一列内容Statutory reserve. 这是因为VIE实体,多为中国公司法人,根据中国公司法,需要计提10%法定盈余公积,从而导致此列的增加。

  NCI对于Statement of changes in Equity的影响

  增加 了equity attributable to the parent and equity attributable to the noncontrolling interest.

  参Appendix I

  实务扩展。中国在美上市公司的change in equity通常比书上的例子多一列内容Statutory reserve. 这是因为VIE实体,多为中国公司法人,根据中国公司法,需要计提10%法定盈余公积,从而导致此列的增加。

  “CAR IN BIG”并的注意事项BIG

  B/S adjustment of the subsidiary‘s records from book value to fair value.

  Identifiable intangible assets related to the acquisition of the subsidiary are recorded at fair value. E.g. customer relationship,contract backlog,Non-compete agreement,Operating license,In Process R&D,etc.(F3-32)

  考点:In Process Research and Development

  对于母公司而言,被并企业的IPRD符合资产的定义(买该企业,就是因为看中该企业的R&D很可能在将来带来经济利益流入)。

  先资本化挂在账上,待研发项目结果明确后,再确定处理办法。

  并购后的后续R&D支出,继续费用化。

  如研发项目成功,则按受益期摊销入R&D

  如研发项目失败,立刻write off入R&D

  Goodwill价值的确定

  Acquisition cost + noncontrolling interest = FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV + Goodwill 解方程

  GW=(Acquisition cost +noncontrolling interest)-(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)

  Goodwill的常见构成(F3-33)

  Assembled workforce,Distribution Channel,Know-how,Government relations,Technical Expertise,etc.

  Full Goodwill Vs. Partial Goodwill

  In GAAP,only Full Goodwill method

  In IFRS,prefer Partial Goodwill method,but can elect Full Goodwill method on a transaction-by-transaction basis

  Full GW=(Acquisition cost +noncontrolling interest)-(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)

  Partial GW =(Acquisition cost)-(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)X % owned =(Acquisition cost+NCI)X % owned -(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)X % owned =[(Acquisition cost +noncontrolling interest)-(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)] X % owned = Full GW X % owned.

  Partial GW = Full GW X % owned by control investor

  Full GW=(Acquisition cost +noncontrolling interest)-(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV)

  Full GW method NCI=Acquisition cost X NCI %/Controlling interest %

  Partial GW =Full GW X % owned

  Partial GW NCI=(FV of B/S + Identifiable IA FV) X NCI % = Full GW method NCI – (Full GW – Partial GW)

  由F-33/34命题可见,Full Goodwill Method同时加大了Consolidation report中的Goodwill和NCI.请牢记GAAP,采用Full Goodwill Method

  Concept Exercise (F3-36~40)

  大汽车里做合并,先把基础数据调。

  RIn要调回并购时,股价要看完成日

  CAR与BIG在借方,IN在贷方列方程。

  Goodwill是未知,方程求解算出来。

  大汽车里调整后,合并新增IaG ,

  别忘同时调BV,Fair Value总正确。

  核心:CAR + BIG = IN

  (1000K+400K+300K)+(200K+100K+G)=(2500K+0)

  G=500K

  Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows

  并购当期的注意事项

  并购现金净额,记在Investing activity cash flow

  当期合并资产负债变动=合并期末资产负债-母公司期初资产负债-并购日子公司资产负债。

  并购后的注意事项

  使用合并净利润

  子公司支付给母公司的股利,应抵销。

  增持子公司股份现金支出,记入“投资活动”

  Step Acquisition – Consolidation and Deconsolidation

  From non-control to control(40%到60%)

  Remeasure previous interest

  Adjustment recognized in I/S

  Remeasure adjust = Addition consideration/Addition % X old %

  Dr. Investment in subsidiary

  Cr. Gain

  From control to more/less control(70%到80%或到60%)

  Equity transaction

  Adjust A.P.I.C

  No Gain/Loss recognized on I/S

  From control to non-control(60%到40%)

  Disposal part,recognize gain/loss

  Remain part,remeasure to fair value

  Adjust I/S

  Acquisition Method Disclosures

  Business combination occurred in current period or from B.S date to F/S issued date.

  Acquiree‘s name,date,%,reason,description etc.

  Consolidation Disclosures

  Disclose the consolidation policy being followed.

  Acquisition Method Summary(F3-45)重要

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